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Salt Agreements Cold War
Even after the Vladivostok agreements, the two nations were unable to resolve the other two outstanding issues of SALT I: the number of strategic bombers and the total number of warheads in each nation`s arsenal. The first was made more difficult by the Soviet Bomber Backfire, which American negotiators thought could reach the United States, but which the Soviets did not want to include in the SALT negotiations. Meanwhile, the Soviets tried unsuccessfully to limit the American use of cruise air missiles (ALCMs). The audit also divided the two nations, but they eventually agreed on the use of National Technical Means (NTM), including the collection of electronic signals known as telemetry and the use of photo recognition satellites. On June 17, 1979, Carter and Brezhnev signed the SALT II Treaty in Vienna. Salt II limited the total number of nuclear forces from both countries to 2,250 delivery vehicles and imposed numerous additional restrictions on core strategic forces, including MIRVs. The most important element of the summit was the salt agreements. Discussions on SALT have been going on for about two and a half years, but with little progress. However, during the meeting between Nixon and Brezhnev in May 1972, a monumental breakthrough was made. The SALT de accords signed on 27 May dealt with two important issues.
First, they limited the number of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) sites to two. (ABMs were missiles designed to destroy arriving missiles.) Second, the number of intercontinental missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles has been frozen at current levels. However, the agreements have done nothing on several independent return missiles (individual missiles with several nuclear warheads) or on the development of new weapons. Yet most Americans and Soviets hailed the salts agreements as huge achievements. As one of the largest nuclear arsenals, Russia is an important player in the nuclear regime of non-proliferation policy and defines nuclear weapons control as a foreign policy priority. This course will reveal the logic and framework of Russia`s nuclear arms control policy. They learn the historical context and the modern context of U.S.-Russian bilateral relations in nuclear arms control and understand how these relationships influence the global non-proliferation regime. They will receive the essential instruments for analyzing Russia`s defence and security policy with regard to non-proliferation and disarmament. At the end of this course, the students… To be able to analyse the actions of a State from the point of view of this Treaty on the Control of Nuclear Weapons; – to give an opinion on the problem raised by arms control experts; – arguments that support their position in discussions on nuclear weapons control. …
Know the technical, political and strategic aspects of nuclear arms control agreements; – the content of arms control contracts in which Russia participates; – reliable information resources devoted to the problem of nuclear arms control. … Be familiar with specific terminology in the area of arms control; – the modern state and the prospects of international nuclear arms control policy; – the foundations of Russia`s nuclear arms control policy. In August 1972, the U.S. Senate approved the agreements by an overwhelming majority. Salt-I, as we have learned, served as the basis for all the discussions on weapons limitation that followed. The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were the first attempt by the Soviet Union and the United States to stop or, at the very least, limit the nuclear arms race. The first agreement was signed in 1972.
It was an interim agreement, but it is still called Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty One. This agreement was only implemented for five years. Later in 1979, the two parties developed a very detailed contract called SALT Two, Strategic Arms Limitation Two.