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Collective Agreement Systems
When collective agreements apply to entire sectors of the economy, employers who wish to change the contract are faced with different policy options. They cannot easily evade collective agreements by going to a non-union environment, at least not if they are in the same sector and in the same country. You can outsource activities to established companies in sectors where collective agreements are more favourable; to place greater emphasis on employment flexibility; to put an end to membership of employers` organisations; or work hard to get a change to the sectoral agreement, for example. B to transform it into a local negotiating framework. All of these strategies have been used and are visible in the data, but the overall impact on coverage rates is not clear in advance. For example, outsourcing to cheaper contracts or increased use of flexible employment may be accompanied by an increase in collective bargaining and coverage of agreements in sectors such as cleaning, catering and security, as well as temporary work, part-time work and fixed-term work, as was the case in the Netherlands (Visser 2013). ← 33. Due to opposition from trade unions to full decentralisation and employers` organisations (dominated by large companies), they have resisted increased competition in wage fixing. And also because of the lack of capacity and representation of workers to negotiate agreements at company level.
In many OECD countries, the proportion of employees is significantly higher than that of employees who are members of a trade union. At the same time, collective bargaining coverage patterns were much more stable than union membership. This difference is sometimes mistakenly referred to as “excessive tariff coverage” and is used as a substitute for administrative extensions of collective agreements, when in fact it is the result of both the Erga omnes clauses (literally in Latin “to all”) and administrative extensions. Until the early 1980s, inter-professional negotiations remained dominant in France, although reforms to make its role more important failed (Saglio in 1995). The reforms of the Socialist government of 1982-83 moved the place of negotiation to the company, making it compulsory for employers to negotiate changes in working time and to introduce direct representation of workers in the company. .